A study published in Social Science Quarterly shows that music lessons outside of school have a positive effect on literacy and math.
Children from middle to upper class families are more likely to attend music programs as their parents have more money and resources to invest in their kids. This means that children from lower socioeconomic status are missing out on the benefits of music training because they lack the resources.
Culture also has an effect. Asian and White children are more active in music programs than Hispanic kids. Black children go to concerts with their parents, but they are less likely to take music lessons. The researchers argue their findings require social policy change to help minority youth from disadvantaged backgrounds access funding for music programs.